8 min read
November 13, 2023

What is Cyber Security? How to Protect Your Business from Cyber Threats

Cyber security is a concept based on the security of digital assets. While enabling an information system to access data and information, it also covers all the security measures necessary to protect it from threats to the data and information in that system. Data threats can take many forms, such as cyber-attacks, data theft, and data modification.

Why is cyber security important?

Cyber security is an extremely important concept in today's digital age. With most individuals and organisations storing important information and data on their computers, the risk of unauthorised access to this information is high. This sensitive information can include bank details, personal photos and documents, and crucial work-related files, and the confidentiality and security of this information can be compromised if accessed by unauthorised persons.

In addition, a cyber attack on a computer system can result in system failure or malfunction, leading to reduced work efficiency and loss of time and money. It can also negatively impact the reputation of the affected individual or organisation and may even result in legal consequences.

To safeguard our computer systems and information from hacking attacks, viruses, and other forms of malware, cyber security measures are crucial. This helps to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and accessibility of our information, making it an essential consideration in virtually all sectors.

In which sectors is cyber security important?

 For example, financial institutions such as banks take cyber security measures to safeguard customer information and financial transactions. Other sectors where cyber security is vital include government agencies, the defence industry, healthcare, manufacturing, and retail sectors.

What are the main threats to the cyber security of an organisation?

  1. Malware: Malware refers to any software designed to damage or exploit a computer system. It includes viruses, worms, Trojans, spyware, ransomware, and adware. Malware can spread through email attachments, downloads, or infected websites.
  2. Insider threats: Insider threats are cybersecurity risks that originate from within an organisation. 
  3. Outsider Threats(Hackers): In a nutshell, who use their technical knowledge to gain unauthorised access to computer systems and networks. 
  4. Phishing: Phishing is a type of social engineering attack that involves tricking individuals into sharing sensitive information, such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details. Phishing attacks are usually carried out through email, text messages, or social media.
  5. Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks: DDoS attacks involve overwhelming a website or server with traffic in order to bring it down. They are typically carried out using a botnet. DDoS attacks can disrupt online services, leading to financial losses and damage to reputation.
  6. Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs): APTs are sophisticated, long-term cyber attacks carried out by highly skilled hackers. They are designed to gain access to sensitive data or systems, often remaining undetected for months or even years.

What are the cyber security measures used today?

Organisations use a range of cybersecurity measures to protect against these threats, including:

  1. Network Security Devices: Such as Firewalls or routers  are a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic. They can help prevent unauthorised access to a network and block malicious traffic.
  2. EDR: EDR is a software that helps protect individual devices, such as laptops and mobile devices, from cyber threats.
  3. Endpoint Protection Softwares: It typically includes antivirus software, software firewalls, and intrusion prevention systems(IPS).
  4. SSL Certification : SSL certification is a security measure that establishes a secure link between a web server and a user's web browser. Its purpose is to safeguard confidential data transmitted over the internet or intranet from unauthorised access by third parties.
  5. Training: Security awareness training educates employees about cybersecurity threats and best practices for staying safe online. This helps reduce the risk of human error and ensures that employees are aware of potential threats.
  6. Incident response planning: Incident response planning involves creating a plan for responding to cybersecurity incidents, such as data breaches or malware infections. It ensures that organisations can quickly and effectively respond to security incidents, minimising the impact on the business.
  7. Regular software updates: Regular software updates help ensure that systems and applications are running the latest security patches and are protected against known vulnerabilities.

In addition to these measures, organisations may also use more advanced technologies, such as intrusion detection and prevention systems, security information and event management (SIEM) solutions, and threat intelligence platforms. Overall, a layered approach to cybersecurity is essential to protect against the wide range of cyber threats that organisations face.

Using sandboxes, data loss prevention (DLP) software, proxy servers and similar solutions is a common practice among organisations wishing to minimise cyber security threats to the extent possible. However, these methods are insufficient for detecting malware that attempt to establish connection with unrecognised or newly registered domains. That is where DNSSense, a provider of enterprise-level DNS security solutions, comes into play.

How does DNSSense ensure the security of your business and your employees?

DNSSense offers cloud-based DNS firewall solutions to companies with its DNSDome product. In this way, any malicious domain request made outwards is instantly detected and blocked. At the same time, Cyber X-Ray allows the instant detection of malicious domains by scanning the domains on the entire Internet and storing the data in a dynamic database utilising its AI-powered algorithm developed by the DNSSense team.

DNSEye, another solution of DNSSense, offers DNS visibility to corporate networks. This way, the source of a possible malicious domain query is instantly detected, and only potential traffic that may pose a security threat is monitored, thanks to its Smart SIEM Integration feature. In addition, DNSEye enriches DNS logs with IAM and DHCP logs, facilitating the detection of the direct source of the relevant traffic (machine, username and MAC address), which saves valuable time for SOC teams.

How is an organisation's cyber security strategy defined?

An organisation's cyber security strategy comprises the investments in devices and software, as well as policies guiding their usage by employees. Essentially, it encompasses all the security measures needed to safeguard an information system from data and information threats while still enabling access. These measures can include firewalls, data encryption, and various cyber security equipment and software.

What kind of penalties do organisations face if they do not take the necessary precautions in cyber security?

To ensure national cyber security, the Information and Communication Technologies Authority (ICTA) inspects natural persons and private legal entities other than operators to ensure that they fulfil their obligations and implement the necessary measures to protect against and deter cyber-attacks. If organisations fail to meet their commitments or implement measures, they may be subject to administrative fines, which can sometimes reach millions of Turkish Liras. 

The penalties applied in cyber security are similar in many countries. Until July 2022, a total of EUR 1.5 billion in fines were imposed in Europe for non-compliance with the personal data security law alone. (

What are the cyber security measures individuals should take to protect themselves personally?

  • Using Secure Passwords: Usernames and passwords should be unique and strong. Also, different passwords should be used on different websites and applications. Instead of remembering all the different passwords or writing them down in a notebook, password management software should be used. 
  • Using up-to-date software: The software on computers and mobile devices should constantly be updated.
  • Using connections with SSL certificates: It is essential to use secure connections (visible as "https" in the URL), especially when entering personal information.
  • Using antivirus and security software: Antivirus and security software protect computers and mobile devices against malware.
  • Exercising care when downloading files: It is essential to be careful when downloading files from the Internet; it is especially recommended to scan files from non-commercial sites or emails before opening them. Pirated files should not be downloaded.
  • Not sharing personal information as much as possible: Care should be taken before sharing personal information, and it should only be shared with trusted sources.
  • Creating backups: Frequent backing up of the contents of computers and mobile devices ensures that data can be recovered in case of loss.

Frequently Asked Questions

Who is a hacker?

What is cyber security?

What are the most common types of cyber-attack?

How can we protect against cyber-attacks?

Is cyber security important only for big businesses?

What is a “Phishing” attack?

Can hacking be prevented?